HHomeBackground Color:He
LiBeCarbon Main PageBlack White GrayBCNOFNe
NaMgCarbon Pictures PageAlSiPSClAr
KCaCarbon Isotope DataScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr
RbSrYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXe
CsBaLaCePrNdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTmYbLuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRn
FrRaAcThPaUNpPuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNoLrRfDbSgBhHsMtDsRgCnUutUuqUupUuhUusUuo

Technical data for Carbon

Click any property name to see plots of that property for all the elements.

Overview
NameCarbon
SymbolC
Atomic Number6
Atomic Weight12.0107
Density2.26 g/cm3[note]
Melting Point3550 °C[note]
Boiling Point4027 °C[note]

Thermal properties
PhaseSolid
Melting Point3550 °C[note]
Boiling Point4027 °C[note]
Absolute Melting Point3823 K[note]
Absolute Boiling Point4300 K[note]
Critical PressureN/A
Critical TemperatureN/A
Heat of Fusion105 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization715 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion{"N/A", -393., "N/A", "N/A"} J/(kg K)
Specific Heat710 J/(kg K)[note]
Adiabatic IndexN/A
Neel PointN/A
Thermal Conductivity140 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion7.1×10-6 K-1[note]

Bulk physical properties
Density2.26 g/cm3[note]
Density (Liquid)N/A
Molar Volume5.3145×10-6
Brinell HardnessN/A
Mohs Hardness0.5 MPa[note]
Vickers HardnessN/A
Bulk Modulus33 GPa
Shear ModulusN/A
Young ModulusN/A
Poisson RatioN/A
Refractive Index2.417[note]
Speed of Sound18350 m/s
Thermal Conductivity140 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion7.1×10-6 K-1[note]

Reactivity
Valence4
Electronegativity2.55
ElectronAffinity153.9 kJ/mol
Ionization Energies
1086.5, 2352.6, 4620.5, 6222.7, 37831, 47277 kJ/mol

Health and Safety
Autoignition PointN/A
FlashpointN/A[note]
Heat of Combustion{"N/A", -393., "N/A", "N/A"} J/(kg K)
DOT Hazard Class{N/A, 4.2, N/A, N/A}
DOT Numbers"N/A", {1361}, "N/A", "N/A"
EU Number{N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A}
NFPA Fire Rating{N/A, 1, N/A, 1}
NFPA Hazards
N/ A, N/ A, N/ A, N/ A
NFPA Health Rating{N/A, 0, N/A, 1}
NFPA Reactivity Rating{N/A, 0, N/A, 0}
RTECS Number{RTECSHL4158550, RTECSFF5250100, RTECSMD9659600, N/A}
NFPA LabelNFPA Label[note]

Classifications
Alternate NamesNone
Names of Allotropes
Graphite, Diamond, AmorphousCarbon, Lonsdaleite, Fullerene, CarbonNanotube
Blockp
Group14
Period2
Electron Configuration[He]2s22p2
ColorBlack
DiscoveryN/A[note]
Gas phaseN/A
CAS NumberCAS7440-44-0
CID Number{CID5462310, CID5462310, CID5462310, CID123591}
Gmelin Number{N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A}
NSC Number{N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A}
RTECS Number{RTECSHL4158550, RTECSFF5250100, RTECSMD9659600, N/A}

Electrical properties
Electrical TypeConductor[note]
Electrical Conductivity1×105 S/m[note]
Resistivity1×10-5 m Ω[note]
Superconducting PointN/A

Magnetic properties
Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
Curie PointN/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-6.2×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-7.45×10-11
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.000014

Abundances
% in Universe0.5%
% in Sun0.3%
% in Meteorites1.5%
% in Earth's Crust0.18%
% in Oceans0.0028%
% in Humans23%

Atomic dimensions and structure
Atomic Radius67 pm
Covalent Radius77 pm
Van der Waals Radius170 pm
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal
Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Lattice Constants
246.4, 246.4, 671.1 pm
Space Group NameP63/mmc
Space Group Number194

Nuclear Properties
Half-LifeStable
LifetimeStable
Decay ModeN/A
Quantum Numbers3P0
Neutron Cross Section0.0035
Neutron Mass Absorption0.000015
Known Isotopes
8C, 9C, 10C, 11C, 12C, 13C, 14C, 15C, 16C, 17C, 18C, 19C, 20C, 21C, 22C
Stable Isotopes
12C, 13C
Isotopic Abundances
12C98.93%
13C1.07%


Notes on the properties of Carbon:

Absolute Boiling Point: Value given for diamond form.

Absolute Melting Point: Value given for diamond form.

Boiling Point: Value given for diamond form.

Density: Value given for graphite form. Density of diamond form is 3500.

Discovery Year: Known since ancient times.

Electrical Conductivity: Value given for graphite. Diamond electrical conductivity is approximately 0.001.

Electrical Type: Value given for graphite. Diamond is an insulator.

Melting Point: Value given for diamond form.

Mohs Hardness: Value given for graphite. Diamond value is 10.0

Refractive Index: Value given for diamond form.

Resistivity: Value given for graphite. Diamond resistivity is approximately 1000.

Specific Heat: Value given for solid graphite form.

Thermal Expansion: Value given for graphite form.

Flash Point: {Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable]}

N FP ALabel: {Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable]}

Up to date, curated data provided by
Mathematica's ElementData function from Wolfram Research, Inc.

The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!